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Engagement occupationnel : Construction historique et compréhensions contemporaines d’un concept fondamental

Le concept d’engagement occupationnel se diffuse progressivement dans les écrits francophones en ergothérapie. Cependant, il existe encore un manque de consensus autour de sa définition et de ses composantes. L’objectif de cette étude est donc de clarifier le concept d’engagement occupationnel en lien avec sa construction théorique et ses usages actuels. Il s’avère que l’engagement occupationnel peut être considéré comme la participation dans une occupation à laquelle est attachée une valeur personnelle positive. Pour certains auteurs, l’engagement occupationnel est un processus en tant que tel qui doit être exploré, et des propositions de définitions ont été faites. Si aucune des définitions ne fait consensus, des composantes se dégagent de celles-ci. Ainsi, l’engagement occupationnel serait un état influencé par de multiples facteurs externes et internes à la personne, comme le contexte socio-environnemental ou le challenge représenté par l’occupation. Le niveau d’engagement occupationnel évolue dynamiquement au cours du temps, sur un continuum allant du désengagement à l’engagement occupationnel. Au final, il semblerait que plus l’engagement occupationnel d’une personne est important, plus la perception que celle-ci a de sa santé et de son bien-être est positive. Ainsi, l’engagement occupationnel des individus doit être évalué lors des interventions en ergothérapie.

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The concept of occupational engagement has its roots in the development of occupational sciences. It is gradually spreading in French-speaking literature in occupational therapy. However, there is still a lack of consensus about its definition and its components. So, the objective of this study is to clarify the concept of occupational engagement in relation to its theoretical construction and its current uses. This concept has been notably used to explore the interaction between engagement in occupations and the well-being and health of different population. Occupational engagement can be considered as participation in an occupation to which is attached a positive personal value. However, some authors suppose that occupational engagement is a process as such that needs to be explored. In this sense, definitions have been proposed, especially since the 2000s. Even if any definition is fully accepted, components can be raised from them. Occupational engagement is a state, influenced by multiple external and internal factors, such as the socio-environmental context or the challenge represented by the occupation. The level of occupational engagement evolves dynamically over time, on a continuum ranging from disengagement to occupational engagement. Occupational engagement is distinguished from other close concepts like occupational performance because it involves aspects of significance, interest, motivation, and perception of self-efficacy of a person. Similarly, if participation and occupational engagement remain associated concepts, people can participate in occupations but without being fully involved in them. Finally, it appears that more important is a person’s occupational engagement, more positive is the perception of his health and his well-being. Thus, the occupational commitment of individuals must be evaluated during care in occupational therapy.

Auteur-s
Bertrand Romain
Desrosiers Julie
Stucki Virginie
Kühne Nicolas
Tétreault Sylvie
Références

Bertrand, R., Desrosiers, J., Stucki, V., Kühne, N. & Tétreault, S. (2018). Engagement occupationnel : Construction historique et compréhensions contemporaines d’un concept fondamental. In J.-M. Caire & A. Schabaille (Dir.), Engagement, occupation et santé (pp. 47-55). Paris : ANFE.

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